Renaissance & Baroque Music Chronology

Gordon J. Callon
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Chronologies: History History | Chronologies Other Details, Music History | Chronologies Composers

Graphical Chronologies:

  Early Twelfth-Century Chronology (1140-1199) [15Kb]       Late Twelfth-Century Chronology (1140-1199) [17Kb]
  Early Thirteenth-Century Chronology (1190-1249) [16Kb]     Late Thirteenth-Century Chronology (1240-1299) [17Kb]  
  Early Fourteenth-Century Chronology (1290-1349) [19Kb]     Late Fourteenth-Century Chronology (1340-1399) [21Kb]  
  Early Fifteenth-Century Chronology (1390-1449) [24Kb]     Late Fifteenth-Century Chronology (1440-1499) [39Kb]  
  Early Sixteenth-Century Chronology (1490-1549) [49Kb]     Late Sixteenth-Century Chronology (1540-1599) [57Kb]  
  Early Seventeenth-Century Chronology (1590-1649) [50Kb]     Late Seventeenth-Century Chronology (1640-1699) [54Kb]  
  Early Eighteenth-Century Chronology (1690-1749) [69Kb]     Late Eighteenth-Century Chronology (1740-1799) [68Kb]  


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History

1100–1259 1260–1279 1280–1299 1300–1319 1320–1339 1340–1359 1360–1379
1380–1399 1400–1419 1420–1439 1440–1459 1460–1479 1480–1499 1500–1519
1520–1539 1540–1559 1560–1579 1580–1599 1600–1619 1620–1629 1630–1639
1640–1649 1650–1659 1660–1669 1670–1689 1690–1699 1700–1719 1720–1739
1740–1749 1750–1769 1770–1799

781:English monk Alcuin (ca. 732–804) meets Charlemagne; Alcuin encouraged study of liberal arts, influencing the Carolingian Renaissance. Alcuin was largely responsible for the revision of the Church Liturgy during the reign of Charlemagne.
800:Charlemagne (742–814) crowned first Holy Roman Emperor.
1054:The Great Schism divides western and eastern Christianity.
1066:Battle of Hastings; William of Normandy conquers England.
1066–1077:Bayeux Tapestry.
1095–1099:Crusades; Jerusalem captured 1099.
ca. 1134–1220:Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres construction.
1149:Oxford University founded.
1163–1182:Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris construction.
1170:Murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, on orders of Henry II.
1189–1193:Third Crusade, led by Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Philip Augustus of France, and Richard I of England.
1215:Magna Carta (England), signed at Runnymede.
1220–1258:Salisbury Cathedral construction.
1226:Death of St. Francis of Assisi (b. 1182).
1233:Pope Gregory IX establishes the Inquisiton.
1252:Gold currencies (florins) introduced in Florence and Genoa (first coins in use since the Roman Empire).
1257:Chinese silk becomes available in Europe.
ca. 1263–1269:Marco Polo (ca. 1254–1324) accompanies father, Nicolo Polo, and uncle, Maffeo Polo, to Court of Kublai Khan. The three return to China, 1271–1295.
1274:Death of St. Thomas Aquinas (b. 1225).
1291–1515:Expansion of the Swiss Confederation.
1297–1309:Swiss Confederation recognized by the enemies of the Hapsburgs.
1299:Ottoman Empire founded.

1300–1399

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Chronologies: History Details:
History
1304–1374:Petrarch.
1305:Giotto (1266-1337), frescos, Arena Chapel, Padua.
1307:Dante (1265–1337), The Divine Comedy.
1314:Gervais du Bus, Roman de Fauvel (satirical poem of over 3000 verses, attacking Church & State); enlarged in 1316 by Chaillou de Pestain, with additional poetry and music.
1327–1377:Edward III (England).
1334–1336:Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), Caccia di Diana ("Diana's Hunt"), first Italian hunting poem in terza rima.
1337–1453:Hundred Years' War: Series of wars between France and England. In the end, England was expelled from all of France, except Calais. (Begins with war between Philip VI of Valois and Edward III.)
1341:Francesco Petrarca (1304–1374) crowned with Laurel, Rome.
1346:Battle of Crécy.
1347:English capture Calais.
1347–1361:The Black Death (resulting in possibly 24 million or more deaths—about 25%–50% of Europe's population). [See Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: The Free Press, 1983).]
1348:Emperor Charles IV founds University of Prague.
ca. 1351/3:Boccaccio, Decameron.
1356:Battle of Poitiers.
1360:Lull in Hundred Years' War after Treaty of Brétigny.
1363–1404:Philip the Bold (Burgundy).
1364–1380:Charles V (France).
ca. 1370:Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.
1373–1394
(and after):
Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343–1400), Canterbury Tales, written initially as unrelated fragments, later assembled together.
1377:Papacy reestablished in Rome, Pope Gregory XI.
1377–1399:Richard II (England).
1380:John Wycliffe (and others), first English translation of the Bible.
1391–1399:First Ottoman Siege of Constantinople.
1397:Turkish Invasion of Greece.
1399–1413:Henry IV (England).

1400–1499

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History
ca. 1415:Tres Riches Heures, completed by the Limbourg brothers for the Duc de Berry.
1415:Battle of Agincourt.
1417–1436:Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral.
1419:Alliance between Burgundy and England.
1419–1467:Philip the Good (Burgundy).
1420:English occupy Paris.
after 1428:Donatello, David.
1431:Jeanne d'Arc executed.
1432:Jan van Eyck (Burgundian–Flemish painter, 1386–1440), the Ghent Altar-piece.
1436:French recapture Paris (from English).
1436:Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral completed.
ca. 1445:Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1400–1467), invents printing with movable metallic type; first Bible, ca. 1455.
1447–1455:Pope Nicholas V established Vatican Library.
1453:End of Hundred Years' War.
1453: Battle of Castillon—English driven from France; Turks capture Constantinople.
1455–1487:Wars of the Roses (England).
1456:Ottomans occupy Athens.
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History
1467:Charles the Bold becomes Duke of Burgundy.
1470:Printing presses set up at the Sorbonne, Paris, and at Utrecht.
1477:Death in Battle of Nancy of Charles the Bold, last Duke of Burgundy (1467–1477). Maria (of Burgundy) marries Maximilian (later Maximilian I), son of Frederick III (Emperor of Austria). Burgundy becomes part of Austrian Empire.
First book printed in England, William Caxton's Dicets and Sayings of the Philosophers.
ca. 1477:Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano dei Filipepi) (1444–1510), Primavera.
1478:Ferdinand and Isabella, with authorization of Pope Sixtus IV, establish Spanish Inquisition.
1479:Marriage of Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
1485:Battle of Bosworth, death of Richard III, ends Wars of the Roses, Henry Tudor crowned King of England (Henry VII).
ca. 1485:Botticelli, The Birth of Venus.
1487:Bartholomew Diaz sails around the southern tip of Africa (then called the Cape of Storms; renamed Cape of Good Hope by John II of Portugal.
1491–1492:Siege of Granada, Moorish troops finally expelled from Spain. 200,000 Jews expelled from Granada.
1492:Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) arrives in new world (Bahamas).
Second journey to Caribbean, 1493.
1493:Maximilian I becomes Austrian Emperor.
1494:Ludovico Sforza becomes Duke of Milan.
1494:Albrecht Dürer travels to Italy; then returns to Nuremberg.
1495:Expulsion of Jews from Portugal.
1495–1498:Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) paints his Last Supper in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
1497–1498:Vasco da Gamba finds sea route to India.
1498–1500:Columbus' third voyage—to Trinidad and coast of South America.
1499:Swiss independence recognized by the Empire (Peace of Basle). French expell Ludovico Sforza from Milan. Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso Hojeda sail to the mouth of the Amazon River.

1500–1599

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History
1500:Peter Henlein invented the pocket watch.
1501–1502:Amerigo Vespucci sails along coast of South America.
1501–1504:Michelangelo sculpts the statue David.
ca. 1502/3:Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) paints Mona Lisa.
1502–1504:Columbus' fourth (and last) voyage—to Honduras and Panama.
1507:Margaret of Austria appointed Regent of the Netherlands.
1508:Raphael enters service of Pope Julius II.
1508–1512:Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
1510:Spanish introduce first African slaves into the Caribbean.
1509:Henry VIII becomes King of England (until 1547).
1512:Dürer become court painter to Maximilian I.
1513:Portugese reach Canton (China).
1515:Charles V (1500–1556) becomes Duke of Burgundy.
1516:Charles V (1500–1556) becomes Emperor of Austria and Spain (greatest empire in the world). Hapsburg domains include Burgundy, the Netherlands, and southern Italy.
Thomas More (1478–1535), Utopia.
1517:Martin Luther (1483–1546), the 95 Theses (Wittenberg, Saxony); Reformation begins.
1519:Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Spanish conquistadors under Hernán Cortés invade Aztec Empire, Mexico.
Spanish establish first Pacific settlement at Panama.
1520:Ferdinand Magellan crosses the Pacific.
1521:Edict of Worms outlaws Luther and his followers.
Ottoman Turks capture Belgrade (Hungary).
1525:Peasants' revolt (Germany); brutally suppressed.
1526:Hans Holbein (1497–1543) arrives in England (from Basel).
Ottomans defeat Hungarian army at Mohács.
1527:Sweden and Finland adopt Lutheranism.
1528:Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1543), The Courtier.
1529:Turkish seige of Vienna.
1530:Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. (Published 1543.)
Protestant German princes establish the Schmalkaldic League.
Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro invade Inca Empire, Peru.
1532-34:Henry VII breaks with Rome, establishes English Church (Anglican).
1534:Ignatius Loyola (1491–1556) founds the Societas Jesu.
Jaques Cartier explores the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River.
1534–1539:Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries, sells their lands to the gentry—the largest shift in ownership of property in modern history.
1535:Sir Thomas More executed.
Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, Peru.
Spanish establish New Spain (Mexico).
1535–1536:Jaques Cartier returns to North America, sails up the St. Lawrence River as far as present-day Quebec and Montreal.
1535–1541:Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel.
1536:Denmark adopts Lutheranism.
John Calvin (1509–1564), Institutio Religionis Christianae [Institutes of the Christian Religion].
1538:Norway adopts Lutheranism.
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History
1540-41:Jesuit Order established.
1541:Calvin establishes reformed church in Geneva.
1542–1543:Portugese become first Europeans to visit Japan.
1543:Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. (Written ca. 1530.)
1545:Council of Trent.
1547:Michelangelo appointed architect of St. Peter's (begun by Bramante, 1506).
Battle of Mühlberg, Charles V defeats Luthern Schmalkaldic League.
Ivan IV (the Terrible), Czar of Russia.
1547–1553:Edward VI King of England.
1549:Francis Xavier establishes a Jesuit mission in Japan.
English Book of Common Prayer.
Portugese establish colony at Bahia, Brazil.
1550:Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574), Le vite de' piu eccellenti architetti, pittori e scultori italiani (Lives of the Most Eminent Painters and Sculptors; revised 1568).
1553–1558:Mary Tudor Queen of England.
1554:Mary Tudor marries Philip of Spain.
1555:Peace of Augsburg: Charles V accepts that independent cities and states in Germany may choose to be Luthern or Roman Catholic (and in some cases Calvinist).
Charles V abdicates and retires to monastery in Spain. Philip II becomes Hapsburg Emperor.
1558–1603:Elizabeth I Queen of England.
1559:Sarum rite abolished.
1562:Council of Trent begins discussions of Music.
1562–1598:Huguenot Wars.
1564:John Calvin (b. 1509) dies.
1567:Military dictatorship established in the Netherlands, under the Spanish Duke of Alba; multiple executions of rebels.
Portugese establish Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1568:Spanish attack British under John Hawkins at San Juan de Ulúa, Mexico.
1568–1648:Dutch Wars of Independence.
1569–1570:Rebellion of Catholic nobility in northern England.
1572:Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day: thousands of French Protestants killed.
1577–1580:Francis Drake sails around the world.
1579:Union of Utrecht—establishment of Dutch Republic.
1580:Portugal & Spain united under Philip II of Spain.
1581:Northern provinces of the Netherlands declare independent republic.
1582:Pope Gregory XIII's reform of the calendar—accepted by Papal States, Spain, Portugal, France, Spanish Netherlands, Denmark, Norway.
1584:Sir Walter Raleigh (1552–1618) establishes first English colony at Roanoke Island, Virginia.
1587:Mary, Queen of Scots executed.
1588:Spanish Armada.
1591:British relief expedition to Roanoke Island finds that all settlers had disappeared.
1594:William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Romeo and Juliet.
1594:Sir Walter Raleigh sails up Orinoco River, South America.
1598:Spanish, under Juan de Oñate, begin conquest of New Mexico.
1598:Edict of Nantes—Huguenots given freedom of worship and equal rights.
1599:Globe Theatre established.

1600–1699

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History
1600:East India Company established.
1603:Samuel de Champlain (c1567-1635) begins exploration of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River.
1603:James I (James VI of Scotland) becomes King of England (until 1625).
1604:William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Othello.
1605:Francis Bacon (1561-1626), On the Advancement of Learning.
1607:Jamestown, Virginia established—first permanent English colony in North America.
1609:Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) discovers moons of Jupiter.
1609:Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Astronomia Nova.
1609–1610:Henry Hudson in Hudson's Bay, Canada.
1611:The Authorized Version of the Bible [the King James Bible].
1618–1648:Thirty Years' War.
1619:First black slaves arrive in Virginia.
1620:Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Novum Organum, and The New Atlantis, 1627, prepares foundations for rational scientific experimentation.
1620:Pilgrims land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1625:Charles I becomes King of England.
1625:French establish trading settlements in the Caribbean—export sugar and tobacco.
1628:William Harvey (1578-1657) discovers circulation of the blood.
1630:Dutch establish trading settlements in Brazil—export sugar and silver.
1630:More than 1000 Puritans settle in Massachusetts.
1630:Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, invades Holy Roman Empire to protect protestant states.
1631:Catholic army under General Tilly sacks Magdelburg.
1632:Oughtred (1575-1660) invents slide rule.
1632:Galileo, Dialogues Concerning Two World Systems, presents evidence for heliocentric solar system.
1633:Inquisition forces Galileo to retract his views.
1637:René Descartes (1596-1650), Le Discours de la Méthode, establishes modern scientific method; Descartes also invented coordinate geometry.
1638:Galileo, Two New Sciences.
1639:France enters Thirty-Years War.
1642-1646:English Civil War.
1643:Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) invents barometer.
1644:Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), The Ecstasy of St. Teresa.
1647-1659:French-Spanish war.
1648:Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty-Years War.
1648-1653:French civil war.
1649:Charles I [England] executed.
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History
1652:George Fox (1624-1691) establishes the Society of Friends (Quakers).
1653:Oliver Cromwell dissolves Parliament.
1654-1667:Russian-Polish war; Russia captures the Ukraine.
1655-1660:Brandenburg–Russian war.
1656:Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) begins developmemt of pendulum clock.
1660:English monarchy reestablished: Charles II.
1661:Louis XIV crowned King of France.
1661:English occupy Bombay.
1661:Robert Boyle (1627-1691), The Sceptical Chymist.
1562–1598:Huguenot Wars.
1662:English Royal Society founded.
1663:French crown takes direct rule of New France (Canada).
1664:English capture New Amsterdam (New York).
1664-1666:Isaac S. Newton (1642-1727) develops laws of gravity.
1666:Newton discovers the spectrum.
1666:French Académie Royale des sciences founded.
1667:John Milton (1608–1674), Paradise Lost.
1667-1668:French invade Spanish Netherlands.
1670:Molière (1622–1673), Le bourgeois gentilhomme.
1671:Newton invents the reflecting telescope. Leibniz (1646-1716) invents an adding machine.
1672:French again attack Netherlands.
1673:Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) and Louis Joliet (1648-1700) explore Mississippi River.
1675:Beginning of Construction of St. Paul's Cathedral, London; architect, Christopher Wren (1632-1723); establishment of Greenwich Observatory (Building designed by Wren). Olaus Roemer (1644-1720) calculates speed of light.
1677:Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), inventor of single-lens microscope, discovers protozoa; discovers bacteria, 1683.
1682:Louis XIV establishes French court at Versailles.
1683:Turks besiege Vienna.
1683-1689:Russia at war with China.
1685:James II crowned King of England.
1685:Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes.
1687: Turks defeated at Mohacs.
1687: Isaac S. Newton (1642–1727), Philosophiæ naturalis principia mathematica.
1688:James II of England deposed.
1689-1697:French–English war in North America (King William's War).
1690:Christiaan Huygens proposes wave theory of light.
1692-1693:Witchcraft trials, Salem, Mass.
1696:Thomas Savery (1650-1715) invents first practical steam engine.
1699:Austrians recapture Hungary from Turks.

1700–1799

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History
May 1700:Beginning of Great Northern War between Sweden and a coalition of Hanover, Brandenburg, Denmark, Poland, and Russia. The war was sparked by the invasion of Swedish Livonia (today Lativia and Estonia) by Saxony. Sweden invades Denmark.
4 July 1700:Treaty of Constantinople: truce between Russia and Ottoman empire.
18 Aug. 1700:Peace of Travendal: Sweden forces Denmark to withdraw from the Great Northern War.
1 Nov. 1700:Death of Charles II of Spain after naming Philip of Anjou as heir. Philip (who becomes Philip V of Spain) is grandson of French king Louis XIV and was brought up at Versailles. This is the immediate cause of the War of the Spanish Succession.
1700:Gregorian Calendar accepted by German Protestants.
1701:Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned Frederick I, King of Prussia.
1701:Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac (1658-1730) establishes Detroit, Mich.
Feb. 1701-1713:War of the Spanish Succession; fighting in North America known as Queen Anne's War. French occupy part of the Spanish Netherlands. Philip of Anjou crowned Philip V of Spain.
12 June 1701:British Act of Settlement names Princes of Hanover as immediate successors to English crown, so ensures a succession of a Protestant king (hence removing the right of succession from the Catholioc James II and his heirs).
1701:Grand Alliance of Britain, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Emperor against the French.
1702:Anne, Queen of England.
1703:Portugal joins Grand Alliance.
July-Aug. 1704:British capture Gibraltar.
2—13 Aug. 1704:Battle of Blenheim (Bavaria)—John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough and Eugène of Savoy defeat French and Bavarians.
1704:Isaac Newton, Opticks—proposed particle theory of light.
1705:Edmond Halley (1656-1742) predicts cyclic return of Halley's Comet.
1705:Thomas Newcomen, by inventing a means of creating a vacuum under the piston, improves the steam engine.
June 1706:British and Portuguese occupy Madrid.
1 May 1707:Union if England and Scotland, creating Great Britain, with a single Parliament in London.
1709:Britain's first Copyright Act.
1711:War between Russia and Ottoman Empire.
1713:Frederick William I crowned King of Prussia.
1713:Ottomans imprison Charles XII, King of Sweden. He is released November 1714.
11 April 1713:Treaty of Utrecht ends War of Spanish Succession. British gain Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain, Newfoundland, Acadia, Hudsons Bay, and St. Kitts from France. Philip V recognized as King of Spain.
1714:Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) invents mercury thermometer.
1714:Death of Queen Anne; George, Elector of Hanover, becomes George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.
1715:Ottomans capture southern Greece from Venice.
1716-17:Austrians expel Ottomans from Hungary.
1717:Jean Watteau (1684-1721), Departure for the Island of Cythera.
1718:Treaty of Passarowitz ends war between Ottomans against the Austrians and Venetians.
1720:Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer.
1720-1722:Spain occupies Texas.
1721:South Carolina becomes English Colony.
1721:First smallpox inoculations, in England and North America.
1722:Dutch are first Europeans to visit Easter Island.
1726:Jonathan Swift (1667–1745), Gulliver's Travels.
1727:George II, crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland.
1727-1728:Anglo-Spanish War; Spanish attempt to capture Gibraltar; England's possession of Gibraltar confirmed, 1729.
1729:North and South Carolina become English colonies.
1729:Stephen Gray, English scientist, discovers principles of electrical conductivity of different materials.
1731:René-Antoine de Réaumur, French scientist, invents alcohol thermometer.
1732:Georgia chartered as a colony.
1732:Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) begins publication of Poor Richard's Almanack.
1732:Lohn Kay, English inventor, patents the flying shuttle (an automated weaving loom).
1732-1738:War of the Polish Succession.
1734:Voltaire (1694-1778), Lettres philosophiques.
1736-1739:War between Russia and Ottoman Empire.
1734:Richmond, Virginia founded.
1738:Treaty of Vienna ends War of the Polish Succession.
1739:Beginning of the War of Jenkin's Ear between Great Britain and Spain (continued as part of the War of the Austrian Succession, 1740).
1740:Frederick II (the Great) becomes King of Prussia. Maria Theresa becomes Archduchess of Austria.
1740:George Anson leaves England on beginning of circumnavigation of the world.
1740:Frederick II abolishs torture; introduces freedom of the press and freedom of worship in Prussia; establishes the Berlin Academy of Science.
1740-1748:First Silesian War and War of the Austrian Succession, begun by Frederick II (the Great)'s occupation of Silesia (Austria).
10 April 1741:Battle of Mollwitz: Frederick II defeats the Austrians and occupies Silesia.
25 June 1741:Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria, crowned Empress of Hungary.
28 July 1742:Treaty of Berlin ends First Silesian War; Prussia gains Silesia and Glatz.
1742:Anders Celsius, Swedish scientist, invents centigrade thermometer.
April 1743:Maria Theresa crowned Queen of Bohemia.
1743:Battle of Dettingen; British, led by George II, defeat French.
1743:American Philosophical Society founded.
March 1744:France declares war on Great Britain.
April 1744:France declares war on Austria.
1744:Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Traité de l'équilibre et du mouvement des fluides (Treatise on Equilibrium and on Movement of Fluids).
1744-1745:Frederick II (the Great) invades Saxony: Second Silesian War.
Winter 1744-45:Great Britain, Austria, Saxony-Poland, and the United Netherlands form the Quadruple Alliance against Prussia.
Apr.-May 1745:Battle of Fontenoy: French defeat British.
4 June 1745:Frederick II (the Great) defeats Austrians who are invading Silesia.
16 June 1745:British capture Louisbourg, Nova Scotia.
2 Sept. 1745:Battle of Prestonpans (SE Scotland): Jacobite army, under Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie) defeat British.
11 Sept. 1745:Jacobite army enters Edinburgh.
12 Sept. 1745:Francis Stephen of Lorraine (spouse of Empress Maria Theresa) elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Sept. 1745:Battle of Basignano (Sardinia): French and Spanish defeat the Austrians.
Sept. 1745:Battle of Soor (Bohemia): Frederick II (the Great) defeats Austrians .
Sept. 1745:Battle of Hennersdorf (Moravia): Frederick II (the Great) defeats Austrians .
Dec. 1745:Jacobite army advances to Derby; defeats the British at Penrith.
25 Dec. 1745:Treaty of Dresden ends Second Silesian War.
1745:Edward Georg von Kleist invents the Leyden jar (for analysis of electricity).
16 Jan. 1746:Battle of Falkirk (Scotland): Jacobite army defeats the British.
11 Oct. 1746:French occupy Brussels, Austrian Netherlands.
22 Oct. 1746:Foundation of The Presbyterian College of New Jersey, in 1896 renamed Princeton University.
16 April 1746:Battle of Culloden (Scotland): British destroys Jacobite army.
Sept. 1746:French capture Madras from the British.
11 Oct. 1746:French occupy Antwerp, Austrian Netherlands.
11 Oct. 1746:Austrians defeat and occupy Republic of Genoa.
11 Oct. 1746:Battle of Raucoux: French defeat Austrians and occupy Austrian Netherlands.
Dec. 1746:Rebellion against Austrians in Genoa.
1746:Albert von Haller, Disputationes Anatomicae Selectiones.
June-July 1747:Battle of Maastricht (United Netherlands): French defeat British.
7-8 Oct. 1748:Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends War of Austrian Succession.
1749:British establish Halifax, Nova Scotia (serves as balance to French reoccupation of Louisbourg, returned to France by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle).
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History
1751:Vol. I of Denis Diderot (1713-1784), Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Paris (completed 1772).
1751:British establish Georgetown on the Potomac River, Maryland (later to become part of Washington).
March 1751:British Parliament introduces Act to adopt the Gregorian Calendar.
14 Sept. 1752:Act to adopts the Gregorian Calendar in Great Britain comes into effect. To allow the recovery of the eleven-days difference in the old and new calendars, the days 3-13 September are omitted from 1752. This leads to riots in London over loss of days (and the associated pay).
1752:Benjamin Franklin demonstrates with kite that lightning is electricity; invents the lightning rod.
Aug. 1753:French troops from Canada occupy the Ohio River valley, part of British North America. British respond by send in Virginia Militia under George Washington.
1753:Carl von Linné, Species Planatarum (The Species of Plants).
5 April 1753:Charter for the foundation of The British Museum.
3 July 1754:French defeat Virginia Militia in Ohio. French build Fort Duquesne (later the City of Pittsburgh).
1754:War between France and England in North America.
1754:Foundation of King's College, New York (later Columbia University).
16 June 1755:French surrender Fort Beauséjour to British under Col. Robert Monckton. 6000 Acadians are deported to Georgia and South Carolina.
9 July 1755:French and native American allies defeat British near Fort Duquesne, on the Monongahela River. British General Edward Braddock is killed.
8 Sept. 1755:Battle of Lake George: British defeat French.
1755:Moscow University founded.
1755:Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), A Dictionary of the English Language, London, begins publication (completed 1773).
1755:Immanuel Kant, Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels (Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens), outlines the theory of the foundation of the solar system and the universe.
1756-1763:Seven Years' War; Britain declares war on France (17 May); Frederick the Great invades Saxony (29 August) and captures Dresden; fighting between France and England continues in North America and in India.
Jan. 1757:Austria declares war on Prussia.
1 May 1757:France and Holy Roman Empire unite against Prussia.
6 May 1757:Battle of Prague: Frederick the Great defeats army of Holy Roman Empire.
18 May 1757:Battle of Kolin (east of Prague): Holy Roman Empire defeats Frederick the Great. The Prussians withdraw from Bohemia.
23 June 1757:Battle of Plassey (India): British under Robert Clive defeat the nawab of Bengal, capture Calcutta, and French colony at Chandernagot. This ensures England will henceforth be the dominant power in India.
5 Nov. 1757:Battle of Rossbach (Saxony): Frederick the Great defeats French.
5 Dec. 1757:Battle of Leuthen (Poland): Frederick the Great defeats Austrians.
1757:John Campbell invents the sextant, a vital aid to navagation.
1 Jan. 1758:Russians occupy East Prussia.
23 June 1758:Battle of Crefeld: Prussians defeat French.
8 July 1758:French defeat British attempt to take Fort Ticonderoga (at Lake George in what is now northern New York state).
26 July 1758:British capture Louisburg (Acadia). Later, British capture Forts Frontenac and Duquesne. Duquesne is renamed Pittsburgh.
25 Aug. 1758:Prussians defeat Russians in East Prussia.
25 Aug. 1758:Battle of Hochkirch: Austrians defeat Prussians. Prussians continue to occupy Silesia and Saxony.
8 April 1757:British under Robert Clive captures Masulipatam and French colony at Deccan (South India).
23 July 1759:Battle of Kay: Russians defeat Prussians.
1 Aug. 1759:Battle of Minden: British & Hanoverians defeat French.
12 Aug. 1759:Battle of Künersdorf (now in Poland): Russians & Austrians defeat Prussians. As a result, Prussians must leave Dresden.
20 Nov. 1759:Naval Battle of Quiberon Bay (coast of Brittany): British defeat French.
13 Sept. 1759:British under Brig. General James Wolfe (1727-1759) capture Quebec.
1759:Voltaire, Candide, ou l'Optimisme.
1759:Arthur Guinness builds brewery, Dublin.
1759:Franz Aepinus, Tentamen Theoriae Electriciatis et Magnetismi (An Attempt at a Theory of Electricity and Magnetism).
Jan. 1760:Battle of Wandiwash (India): British under Sir Eyre Coote defeat French.
15 Aug. 1760:Battle of Liegnitz (Silesia): Prussians defeat Austrians. Russians occupy and burn parts of Berlin, then pushed out by Prussians.
Oct. 1760:George III becomes King of England.
3 Nov. 1760:Battle of Torgau (Saxony): Prussians defeat Austrians. Prussians control Saxony, but Austrians continue to occupy Dresden.
1760:British capture Montreal.
1760:Benjamin Franklin, Some Account of the Success of Inoculation for the Smallpox in England and America.
1760s–1830s:Industrial Revolution (Britain).
Oct. 1761:French and Spanish invade Portugal. British send army to assist Portugal.
1761:British under Sir Eyre Coote capture French colony at Pondicherry (India).
4 Jan. 1762:Britain declares war on Spain.
5 Jan. 1762:Tsarita Elizabeth of Russia dies; succeeded by mentally unstable son, Peter III.
5 May 1762:Treaty of St. Petersberg between Russia and Prussia. Prussia regains Pomerania. Sweden withdraws from alliance with Russia.
22 May 1762:Treaty of Hamburg forms alliance of Russia and Prussia. Russia returns all conquests of the Seven years War.
May 1762:Spain again invades Portugal.
17 July 1762:Peter III of Russia murdered and replaced by his wife, Grand Duchess Catherine, who becomes Catherine II (the Great) Empress of Russia.
1762:British capture Caribbean islands of Martinique, Grenada, St. Vincent (from France), Cuba (from Spain) British occupy Spanish colony at Manila.
1762:London: establishment of the Equitable Life Assurance Society.
1762:Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract.
10 Feb. 1763:Treaty of Paris: end of Seven Years' War. France cedes Canada, Grenada, and Senegal to England. England gains Florida and Minorca from Spain. France regains Pondicherry and Chandernagor (India), Guadelope and Martinique (Caribbean). From England, Spain regains Cuba and Philippines. France, Spain gains New Orleans and Louisana (an area now including Louisana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakoda, and South Dakoda), with the Mississippi being the border between this territory and the British American colonies.
1763:British defeat Mir Qasim, nawab of Bengal.
1763:Frederick II (the Great), Histoire de la Guerre de Sept Ans (History of the Seven Years War).
1763:Catharine Macaulay, History of England from the Accession of James I to that of the Brunswick Line 8 vols.
1763:Voltaire, Traité sur la toléance (Treatise on Tolerance).
May-Oct. 1764: Political unrest in Boston over British colonial policy.
22 Oct. 1764:Battle of Buxar (India): British defeat Mir Qasim, deposed nawab of Bengal. British control Bengal and Bihar.
1764:Voltaire, Dictionnaire philosophique.
22 March 1765:British Stamp Act (taxation of American publications).
15 May 1765: British Quartering Act (requiring Americans to supply and lodge British troops).
13 Aug. 1765:Archduke Leopold (Austrian) becomes ruler of Tuscany.
7-25 Oct. 1765:American representatives compose Declaration of Rights and Grievances (opposition to the Stamp Act).
1765:James Watt (Glasgow) invents the steam engine.
Feb. 1765:British repeal Stamp Act.
18 March 1765:British Declaratory Act (allowing British Parliament to pass laws that apply to all British colonies).
1766:Drottningholm Court Theatre constructed (Sweden).
9 June 1767:British Parliament passes Townshend Revenue Act, imposing taxes on importation into America of tea, glass, paint, oil, led, and paper.
1767:Joseph Priestley, The History and Present State of Electricity.
25 May 1768:Captain James Cook departs in the HMS Endeavour for Tahiti.
22 Sept. 1768:Meeting of Masssachusetts town delegates to prepare list of grievances against Britain.
Oct. 1768:Ottoman empire declares war on Russia.
Oct. 1768:Treaty of Hard Labour: British gain control of Cherokee land in Virginia and North and South Carolinas.
Oct. 1768:Treaty of Fort Stanwix: British gain control of Iroquois land between Ohio and Tennessee Rivers.
16 May 1769:Virginia rejects Britain's power to tax the American colonies and decide to refuse any taxed goods; Virgiana protests transfer of colonial treason trials top England.
19 May 1769:British disolve Virginia assembly.
Oct. 1769:Austria occupies much Polish territory in what is now the Ukraine. Austria and Prussia agree to partition Poland between them.
Nov. 1769:Russo-Ottoman war: Russia occupy Moldavia and Wallachia, occupying the capitol, Bucharest.
1769:Spanish Franciscans begin to colonize California, settling in San Francisco and San Diego.
1769:Dartmouth College, New Hampshire established.
1769:Captain Cook reaches Tahiti; continues on to New Zealand and Australia.
1769:Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot invents steam carriage.
Jan. 1770:Battle of Golden Hill (New York): first skirmish leading to the American Revolution.
5 Mar. 1770: Boston Massacre: British troops fire on protestors; only three are killed.
12 April 1770:British Parliament repeals Townshend Revenue Act.
16 May 1770:Battle of Alamance (North Carolina): British defeat a small rebellion.
6 July 1770:Battle of Chesme (off coast of Anatolia): Russian navy defeats Ottomans.
1770:James Hargreaves patents the "spinning jenny", mechanical textile machine.
1770:Russians occupy Crimea.
1770:Captain James Cook (1728-1778) arrives in Botany Bay, Australia.
1774:Louis XVI becomes King of France.
1775:Battle of Bunker Hill—beginning of American Revolution.
1776:American Declaration of Independence.
1781:British army surrenders at Yorktown, Virginia.
1783:First manned flight, in a hot-air balloon.
1783:Treaty of Paris (ends American Revolution).
1784–1785:Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii.
1788:Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
1789–1794:French Revolution.
1791:James Boswell (1740–1795), The Life of Samuel Johnson.

History Top: History   Top Top .....

Other Details, Music History

1400–1499 1500–1549 1550–1599 1600–1699 1700–1799
ca. 500: Boethius (480–524), De institutione musica.
840–850:Aurelian of Réôme, first treatise concerning Gregorian chant.
ca. 1170:Magnus Liber begun.
ca. 1240-50:Johannes de Garlanda, De musica mensurabili positio.
ca. 1270:Anonymous IV, De mensuris et discantu.
ca. 1280:Franco of Cologne, Ars cantus mensurablis.
ca. 1300:Walter Odington, De speculatione musicae.
ca. 1318:Marchettus de Padua, Pomerium.
ca. 1320:Philippe de Vitry, Ars nova.
1321:Jehan des Murs [Johannes de Muris] (ca. 1300-ca. 1350), Ars nove musice.
1326:Robert de Handlo, Regulae cum maximis magistri Franconis, cum additionibus aliorum musicorum.
1330-1340:Jacques de Liège, Speculum musicae.

1400–1499

1412:Prosdocimus de Beldemandis, Tractatus practice cantus mensurabilis as modum Ytalicorum.
ca. 1473–1476:Johannes Tinctoris, Proportionale musices.
1477:Johannes Tinctoris, Liber de arte contrapuncti.
ca. 1480–1490:Guiliemus Monachus, De praeceptis artis musicae et practicae compendiosus libellus; [First mention in a treatise of the suspension].
ca. 1485:Johannes Tinctoris, De inventione et usu musicae.
1490–1502:Eton Choirbook compiled.
1496:Franchino Gafori, Practica musicae.

1500–1599

1501:Ottaviano Petrucci (1466–1539) publishes first printed book of music, Harmonice musices Odhecaton A, Venice, followed by two more books of secular works, Canti B (1502) & Canti C (1503).
1511:Sebastian Virdung, Musica getutscht.
1511:Arnold Schlick, Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten. [First book about organ construction printed in German.]
1521:Giovanni Spataro, Dilucide et probatissime demonstratione.
1523:Pietro Aron, Thoscanello de la musica (later editions as Toscanello in musica).
1525:Attaingnant's earliest surviving book (Paris).
1530:Madrigali novi, Rome—first publication to use the term madrigal.
1532:Martin Agricola, Musica instrumentalis Deudsch… .
1533:Pierre Attaingnant, Vingt et Sept Chansons Musicales a Quatre Partes…; Verdelot, Madrigali.
1542–1543:Silvestro di Ganassi, Regola Rubertina.
1543:Susato establishes printing press in Antwerp.
1547:Heinrich Glareanus, Dodecachordon;
Claude Gervaise, Second liure contenant trios gaillardes, trois pavanes, vingt trois branles, tant gays, simples, que doubles, douze basses dances, & neuf tourdions, en somme cinquante… .
1555:Juan Bermudo, Declaración de instrumentos musicales… .
1556:Herman Finck, Practica musica.
1558:Gioseffo Zarlino (1517-1590), Le istitutioni harmoniche.
1562:Council of Trent begins discussions of Music.
1577:Francisco Salinas, De musica libri septem.
1581:Vincenzo Galilei, Dialogo...della musica antica e della moderna.
1589:Performance of the intermedi of La Pellegrina, Florence.
1592:Ludovico Zacconi, Prattica di musica, Part I.
1593:Girolamo Diruta, Il Transilvano, Part I.
1594:Hercole Bottrigari, Il Desiderio overo de' Concerti di varij strumenti musicali.
1597/98:Jacopo Peri (1561-1622), Jacopo Corsi (1561-1602), & Ottavio Rinuccini (1562-1621), Dafne performed in Florence.

1600–1699

1600:Peri, Euridice performed in Florence.
1601:Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Madrigali…, Roma.
1608:Francesco Rasi, Vaghezze di musica, Venice.
1608:Costanzo Antegnati, L'Arte organica.
1608:Marco da Gagliano (1582-1643), Dafne, Florence.
1609:Girolamo Diruta, Il Transilvano, Part II.
1609:Adriano Banchieri, Conclusioni nel suono dell'organo.
1610:Gio. Paolo Cima, Concerti ecclesiastici, Milan.
1610: Robert Dowland (compiler), A Musicall Banqvet, London; Robert Dowland (compiler), Varietie of Lvte-Lessons, London.
1613:Domenico Pietro Cerone, El melopeo y maestro.
1615: Sigismondo d'India, Le musiche a due voci, Venice; (Le musiche…Libro terzo, Venice, 1618; …Libro quarto, Venice, 1621; …Libro quinto, Venice, 1623).
1622:Ludovico Zacconi, Prattica di musica, Part II.
1636:Marin Mersenne, Harmonie universelle.
1640:The Bay Psalm Book, first book printed in North America.
1641:Giovanni Batista Fontana, Sonate a 1 2. 3. per il Violino, o Cornetto, Fagotto, Chitarone, Violoncino o simile altro Istromento, Venice.
1669:Royal Academy of Music founded, Paris.
1691:Andreas Werckmeister, Musikalische Temperatur.

1700–1799

1704: First pianoforte by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731).
1728:Johann David Heinichen, Der General-Bass in der Composition.
1728:John Gay (1685-1732), The Beggar's Opera.
1732:Covent Garden Theatre, London, opened.
1740:James Grassineau (d. 1784), A Musical Dictionary.
1752:Paris, Querlle des bouffons.
1768:J.-J. Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musique.
1771:Charles Burney (1726-1814), The Present State of Music in France and Italy.
1773:Burney, The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and United Provinces.
1776:Burney, History, vol. I (Vol. II 1782, Vol. III & IV 1789); John Hawkins, History.

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Last updated: 24 May 2008.
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